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Aartsz, P.

In , Oberndorf, a masters student at the Air Force Institrt, of Technology, tested the Gabor theo y on visual illusion The coordinates x and y or p and 0 provide alternate. Art, Illusion and the Visual System. Describes the three part system of human vision. Explores the anatomical arrangement of the vision system from the eyes to the brain.

Traces the path of various visual signals to their interpretations by the brain. Discusses human visual perception and its implications in art and design. Art, illusion and the visual system. The verve of op art, the serenity of a pointillist painting and the 3-D puzzlement of an Escher print derive from the interplay of the art with the anatomy of the visual system. Color, shape and movement are each processed separately by different structures in the eye and brain and then are combined to produce the experience we call perception.

Visual illusion in mass estimation of cut food. We investigated the effect of the appearance of cut food on visual mass estimation. In this experiment, we manipulated the shape e. Eleven subjects participated in tasks to choose the picture of the food sample which they felt indicated a target mass. We used raw carrots and surimi ground fish gel as hard and soft samples, respectively. The results clearly confirm an existence of an illusion , and this indicates that the appearance of food interferes with visual mass estimation.

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Specifically, participants often overestimated the mass of finely cut food, especially fine strips, whereas they could accurately estimate the mass of block samples, regardless of the physical characteristics of the foods. The overestimation of the mass of cut food increased with the food's actual mass, and was particularly obvious with increases of apparent volume when cut into fine strips. These results suggest that the apparent volume of a food sample effects the visual estimation of its mass.

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Hence we can conclude that there are illusions associated with the visual presentation of food that may influence various food impressions, including satisfaction and eating behaviour. Visual illusion of tool use recalibrates tactile perception. Despite two decades of research, little is known about its boundary conditions. It has been widely argued that embodiment requires active tool use, suggesting a critical role for somatosensory and motor feedback.

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The present study used a visual illusion to cast doubt on this view. We used a mirror-based setup to induce a visual experience of tool use with an arm that was in fact stationary. Following illusory tool use, tactile perception was recalibrated on this stationary arm, and with equal magnitude as physical use.

Recalibration was not found following illusory passive tool holding, and could not be accounted for by sensory conflict or general interhemispheric plasticity. These results suggest visual tool-use signals play a critical role in driving tool embodiment.


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An example of the auditory- visual illusion in speech perception, first described by McGurk and MacDonald, is the perception of [ta] when listeners hear [pa] in synchrony with the lip movements for [ka]. One account of the illusion is that lip-read and heard speech are combined in an articulatory code since people who mispronounce words respond….

Effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion on neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex and techniques of visual illusion , applied isolated or combined, in patients with neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.

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In a sham controlled, double-blind, parallel group design, 39 patients were randomized into four groups receiving transcranial direct current stimulation with walking visual illusion or with control illusion and sham stimulation with visual illusion or with control illusion. For transcranial direct current stimulation, the anode was placed over the primary motor cortex. Each patient received ten treatment sessions during two consecutive weeks.

Clinical assessment was performed before, after the last day of treatment, after 2 and 4 weeks follow-up and after 12 weeks. The combination of transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion reduced the intensity of neuropathic pain significantly more than any of the single interventions.


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  • Patients receiving transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion experienced a significant improvement in all pain subtypes, while patients in the transcranial direct current stimulation group showed improvement in continuous and paroxysmal pain, and those in the visual illusion group improved only in continuous pain and dysaesthesias. At 12 weeks after treatment, the combined treatment group still presented significant improvement on the overall pain intensity perception, whereas no improvements were reported in the other three groups.

    Our results demonstrate that transcranial direct current stimulation and visual illusion can be effective in the management of neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury, with minimal side effects and with good tolerability. Abstract Spatial knowledge about an environment can be cued from memory by perception of a visual scene during active navigation or by imagination of the relationships between nonvisible landmarks, such as when providing directions.

    It is not known whether these different ways of accessing spatial knowledge elicit the same representations in the brain. To address this issue, we scanned participants with fMRI, while they performed a judgment of relative direction JRD task that required them to retrieve real-world spatial relationships in response to either pictorial or verbal cues. Multivoxel pattern analyses revealed several brain regions that exhibited representations that were independent of the cues to access spatial memory.

    Specifically, entorhinal cortex in the medial temporal lobe and the retrosplenial complex RSC in the medial parietal lobe coded for the heading assumed on a particular trial, whereas the parahippocampal place area PPA contained information about the starting location of the JRD.

    Effects of visual expertise on a novel eye-size illusion : Implications for holistic face processing. In the current study, we asked Chinese and Caucasian participants to judge eye size in different pairs of faces and measured the magnitude of the illusion when the faces were own- or other-age adult vs.

    Caucasian faces. We found an other-age effect and an other-race effect with the eye-size illusion : The illusion was more pronounced with own-race and own-age faces than with other-race and other-age faces. These findings taken together suggest that visual experience with faces influences the magnitude of this novel illusion.

    Extensive experience with certain face categories strengthens the illusion in the context of these categories, but lack of it reduces the magnitude of the illusion. Our results further imply that holistic processing may play an important role in engendering the eye-size illusion. Anisotropic perception of visual angle: implications for the horizontal-vertical illusion , overconstancy of size, and the moon illusion.

    Three experiments investigated anisotropic perception of visual angle outdoors. In Experiment 1, scales for vertical and horizontal visual angles ranging from 20 degrees to 80 degrees were constructed with the method of angle production in which the subject reproduced a visual angle with a protractor and the method of distance production in which the subject produced a visual angle by adjusting viewing distance.

    In Experiment 2, scales for vertical and horizontal visual angles of 5 degrees degrees were constructed with the method of angle production and were compared with scales for orientation in the frontal plane. In Experiment 3, vertical and horizontal visual angles of 3 degrees degrees were judged with the method of verbal estimation. And 4 the obtained angle for visual angle is larger than that for orientation. From these results, it was possible to predict the horizontal-vertical illusion , over-constancy of size, and the moon illusion.

    The working memory Ponzo illusion : Involuntary integration of visuospatial information stored in visual working memory. Visual working memory VWM has been traditionally viewed as a mental structure subsequent to visual perception that stores the final output of perceptual processing. However, VWM has recently been emphasized as a critical component of online perception, providing storage for the intermediate perceptual representations produced during visual processing. This interactive view holds the core assumption that VWM is not the terminus of perceptual processing; the stored visual information rather continues to undergo perceptual processing if necessary.

    The current study tests this assumption, demonstrating an example of involuntary integration of the VWM content, by creating the Ponzo illusion in VWM: when the Ponzo illusion figure was divided into its individual components and sequentially encoded into VWM, the temporally separated components were involuntarily integrated, leading to the distorted length perception of the two horizontal lines.

    This VWM Ponzo illusion was replicated when the figure components were presented in different combinations and presentation order. The magnitude of the illusion was significantly correlated between VWM and perceptual versions of the Ponzo illusion. These results suggest that the information integration underling the VWM Ponzo illusion is constrained by the laws of visual perception and similarly affected by the common individual factors that govern its perception.

    Thus, our findings provide compelling evidence that VWM functions as a buffer serving perceptual processes at early stages. All rights reserved. Interaction between vibration-evoked proprioceptive illusions and mirror-evoked visual illusions in an arm-matching task. The mirror was placed between left and right arms, and arranged so that the reflected left arm appeared to the subjects to be their unseen right reference arm.

    The felt position of the right arm, indicated with a paddle, was influenced by vision of the mirror image of the left arm. If the left arm appeared flexed in the mirror, subjects felt their right arm to be more flexed than it was. Conversely, if the left arm was extended, they felt their right arm to be more extended than it was. The illusion of a more flexed reference arm evoked by seeing a mirror image of the flexed left arm was reduced by vibration. However, the illusion of extension of the right arm evoked by seeing a mirror image of the extended left arm was increased by vibration.

    That is, when the mirror and vibration illusions were in the same direction, they reinforced each other.

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    However, when they were in opposite directions, they tended to cancel one another. The present study shows the interaction between proprioceptive and visual information in perception of arm position. The stimulus was presented at two different orientations frontoparallel vs. Verbal judgments also differed according to presentation condition and to which line was the target, with the overestimation of the undivided line ranging between 6.

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    A visual illusion leads to safer stepping behaviour.